Farewell to Reason PDF ☆ Farewell to MOBI :µ


Farewell to Reason Farewell to Reason offers a vigorous challenge to the scientific rationalism that underlies Western ideals of “progress” and “development” whose damaging social and ecological conseuences are now widely recognized For all their variety in theme and occasion the essays in this book share a consistent philosophical purpose Whether discussing Greek art and thought vindicating the church’s battle with Galileo exploring the development of uantum physics or exposing the dogmatism of Karl Popper Feyerabend defends a relativist and historicist notion of the sciences The appeal to reason he insists is empty and must be replaced by a notion of science that subordinates it to the needs of citizens and communitiesProvocative polemical and rigorously argued This is a hard book for me to rate On the one hand when I first read parts of Farewell to Reason in the late '90s I was electrified by it It opened my mind to a whole new way of looking at the world Feyerabend's relativism which I have subscribed to ever since On the other hand the book is deeply flawed and probably 70% of it isn't worth reading One example the final essay consists of responses to criticisms of Feyerabend in an obscure German publication Unfortunately the reader of FTR has no idea what the original critics actually said So it's a little like coming into a conversation halfway through where you don't have most of the background Much of the book suffers from this type of thoughtlessness toward the reader and large sections on the philosophy of science are both very dated and incomprehensible Nevertheless the first and last essays of FTR rate five stars in my opinion Among today's armies of moral crusaders it's hard to find a genuine defender of relativism and Feyerabend is one of the best What is relativism? It's the idea that there is no moral truth and that objectivity rationality and progress are phony constructs used primarily by Western people to undermine and destroy the diverse cultures and ways of life which existed in the pre rational era or remain pre rational today Feyerabend's program perhaps it would be better to call it an anti program is to allow total pluralism and self determination where all sorts of societies and belief systems are allowed to flourish – without being browbeaten by intellectual elites and forced into rational straight jackets like free trade growth economics secular humanism liberalism Marxism etc Feyerabend doesn't hesitate to take on the hard cases either At one point in FTR he defends the Catholic inuisition as being rational within its own terms and its arguments as impossible to refute based on any objective arguments And he's right A less dramatic but similar case would be the controversy in recent years over teaching evolution in public schools Feyerabend's point of view is that what matters is not the truth but uality of life and the right of human beings to live in ways they find meaningful and satisfying That is there is nothing wrong with a community of people deciding through democratic principles that they want to live a Biblically structured life and teach their children Creationism Of course this is where the modern inuisition and the Popes of Objectivity step in and assert their right to force their objective views onto other people's children And in today's America that seems perfectly normal But translate this behavior to a society fashionable than evangelical Christians like say Indios living in the Do we really need to force their children into schools to learn evolution and other irrelevant garbage that essentially is just another missionary White man's religion to be rammed down their throats like Christianity? As Feyerabend elouently puts it The pygmies for example or the Mindoro of the Philippines do not want eual rights – they just want to be left alone Stephen J Gould often said that there is no progress in evolution and that no species is superior to any other Species are simply adapted in various degrees to their environment Feyerabend deploys similar arguments in the field of human culture Essentially his point is that no culture is superior to any other and thus there is no reason for one culture to impose its views or ways of life on another Yes we could send the Indio children to school and teach them evolution – instead of the silly primitive religious beliefs which dog their parents – along with all the other trappings of our modern objective civilization But why? Their society is already superbly adapted to their environment and meets their spiritual needs Whereas our supposedly advanced society is destroying our environment and not meeting our spiritual needs Farewell to Reason has some brilliant life changing material in it well at least it had a big impact on my life and thinking and is well worth reading – just don't be hesitant to skim over the chaff Kitabın ilk bölümü görecilik hakkında ve bu bölüm kitabın yaklaşık çeyreğini oluşturuyor Bu bölümün daha öncesinde benim gibi görecilik leyhinde bir şeyler okumamış ve özellikle görecilik karşıtı argümanları görmüş birisi için oldukça ufuk açıcı olabileceğini düşünüyorum Bu bölümde Feyerabend hem göreciliğe getirilen belirli eleştirilere yanıt veriyor hem de kendi göreci görüşünü savunuyorFeyerabend amcamızın en göze çarpan taraflarından birisi farklı geleneklere ve bu gelenekler arasındaki farklılıklara verdiği önem Ona göre bilim de geleneklerden yalnızca birisi ve bilimi ve akılcı ilkeleri esas alan bir toplumu başka ilkeleri esas alan bir topluma üstün kılacak nesnel bir kıyaslama ölçütü yok Feyerabend görüşlerini desteklemek maksadıyla kitap boyunca bir sürü tarihsel örneğe başvuruyor ve bu örnekleri verirken dönemin şartlarını göz önünde bulundurarak o zamanlar savunulan görüşlerin kendi içerisinde nasıl da tutarlı olduğunu bilimsel ilerlemenin bizim sandığımız kadar basit bir şekilde ilerlemediğini göstermeye çalışıyor Kitapta vurgulanan ve ilgimi çeken diğer şeylerden birisi ise kitabın sürekli bir şekilde teori ve uygulama arasında karşılaştırmalar yapması ve teoriyi uygulamaya ya da pratiğe göre daha asil yüce bir uğraş olarak gören tayfanın tezatlıklarını Feyerabend'in ifadesiyle ikiyüzlülüklerini ortaya çıkarması Feyerabend ile tanışmamın daha doğrusu bu kitabı okumanın bana kattığı en önemli şeylerden birisinin belirli bir teoriye olan imandan kaynaklanan kibirden arınmam olduğunu söyleyebilirimKitapla ilgili sorunlardan birisi kitabın belirli kısımlarında kendinizi ne olduğunu dahi anlamadığınız tartışmaların içerisinde bulabilmeniz ki bilim felsefesi ve bilim tarihi hakkında çok okuma yapmadıysanız muhtemelen hissedeceksinizdir Ancak yine de kitabın farklı bir persfektif sağlamak açısından oldukça faydalı olacağını düşünüyorum Kitabı okurken tekrardan okuyabileceğimi düşündüğüm en çok hoşuma giden bölümleri işaretledim o bölümler şöyle1 Görecilik Üzerine Notlar2 Akıl Ksenofanes ve Homeros'un Tanrıları3 Bilgi ve Teorilerin Rolü9 Galile ve Doğruluğun Tiranlığı10 Putnam'ın Kıyaslanamazlık Üzeirne Düşünceleri11 Kültürel Çoğulculuk mu Yoksa Yeni Yavuz Birörneklik mi?12D BİLİM BİRÇOK GELENEKTEN BİRİ12E AKIL VE PRATİK12F ÖZGÜR BİR TOPLUMUN ÖĞELERİ12G İYİ VE KÖTÜ12H AKLA VEDA Originally published on my blog here in May 2000Farewell to Reason is a collection of essays on the subject of relativism Though they were rewritten for inclusion in this volume their independent origin still shows in a certain repetitiveness and in disparity of content some are far concentrated on a single theme than others for example some are criticisms of particular writersThe essays pick on the same kinds of targets as Feyerabend's book Against Method and attack the idea that science is a unified whole with a single overriding method Karl Popper is singled out for criticism but much of what is said would apply to anyone who contrasts scientific thinking with other modes of thought this is usually done do dismiss religious ideasMost of the criticisms that can be made of Against Method are also appropriate here The rhetorical style of Feyerabend's argument his use of Galileo as a paradigm of scientific method and the use of counter examples from areas not always regarded as scientific such as economics are faults common to both The essay form adds new problems and some parts do not fit into the whole terribly well notably the discussion of Aristotle's philosophy of mathematics though it is interesting in itself Neither Popper nor Feyerabend seem terribly convincing to me; while it is obvious that not all scientific thought is uniform most practising scientists have uite similar ideas about what they are trying to do These differ in details such as the precise relationship between theory experiment and whatever may count as underlying reality but then philosophy does not interest many and certainly there are few who would let it affect their workThe most interesting new point is part of the essay on Galileo and the church in which Feyerabend parallels the attitude of Catholic cardinals then and the scientific establishment today As the money and administrative side of scientific research grow every larger it is and difficult to be a successful rather than starving iconoclast For science to have a religious orthodoxy of this kind is a bad thing and we need people like Feyerabend to continually attack its genesis

  • Paperback
  • 336 pages
  • Farewell to Reason
  • Paul Karl Feyerabend
  • English
  • 19 January 2014
  • 9780860918967

About the Author: Paul Karl Feyerabend

Paul Karl Feyerabend was an Austrian born philosopher of science best known for his work as a professor of philosophy at the University of California Berkeley where he worked for three decades 1958–1989 His life was a peripatetic one as he lived at various times in England the United States New Zealand Italy Germany and finally Switzerland His major works include Against Method publis


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